At the time of his birth, he was the fourth son of Immanuel and Caroline Nobel.
In the late s, Vera Rubin and Kent Ford of the Carnegie Institution of Washington stared, confused, at the punch-card readouts from their observations of the Andromeda Galaxy. The vast spiral seemed to be rotating all wrong.
Its invisible particles swarm and stream and slam through the whole cosmos. It affects how stars move within galaxies, how galaxies tug on each other, and how all that matter clumped together in the first place. It is to the cosmos like air is to humans: The discovery of this strange substance deserves a Nobel Prize.
All of these experiments and ideas are worthy of praise, and some, like dark energy, even tilted the axis of our understanding of the universe. Rubin is now She is too infirm for interviews.
And because the Nobel can only be awarded to the living, time is running out for her. Hans Jensen for their work on atomic structure and theory. And the only woman other than Mayer ever to win was Marie Curie. Some, like Chanda Prescod-Weinstein of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, have called for no men to accept the prize until Rubin receives it.
Rubin was one of the first women to gain access to its gilt-edged, carved-pillar grandeur. Windows lined the wall next to her bed. She watched the stars move, distant and unreachable. I just was captured.
She built a telescope and chose astronomical topics for English papers, using every subject as an opportunity to peer deeper into the universe. While her parents supported her, it was a different story at school.
Rubin and Kent Ford white hat check on their equipment at Lowell Observatory in during one of their first observing runs together. Carpenter was obsessed with galaxies and how their innards moved. One day, her new husband, Robert Rubin, brought her a journal article by astronomer George Gamow.
She began to measure how galaxies moved. Did some cluster together in their travel through space — perhaps rotating around a pole, like the planets rotate around the common Sun? While gathering data, she found a plane that was denser with galaxies than other regions.
When she presented her thesis, William Shaw, one of her advisers, told her just two things: One, the word data is plural. Two, her work was sloppy. Or, rather, she should consider having it presented for her. Because she was pregnant with her first child — due just a month before the meeting — and not a member of the society, he graciously volunteered to give a talk on her results.
As I recall, all the comments were negative. Back into the field For six months after her first child was born, Rubin stayed home. But while she loved having a child, staying at home emptied her.
She cried every time The Astrophysical Journal arrived at the house. And it was he who insisted that I go back to school. Then even after I had my Ph. A spectrometer takes light and splits it up into its constituent wavelengths.
Instead of just showing that a fluorescent bulb glows white, for instance, it would show how much of that light is blue and how much yellow, and which specific wavelengths of blue and yellow. With this device, Ford and Rubin decided to look at quasars — distant galaxies with dynamic, supermassive black holes at their centers.
But this was competitive work: Quasars had just been discovered inand their identity was in those days a mystery that everyone wanted to solve.
When they pointed the telescope at M31, they expected to see it rotate like the solar system does: Objects closer to the center move faster than ones toward the edge.
Mass causes gravity, which determines the speed of rotation. But no matter how far out they looked, the HII regions seemed to be moving at the same speed.Alfred Wegener: Science, Exploration, and the Theory of Continental Drift [Mott T.
Greene] on kaja-net.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Alfred Wegener aimed to create a revolution in science which would rank with those of Nicolaus Copernicus and Charles Darwin.
After completing his doctoral studies in astronomy at the University of Berlin. Editor's note: This article has been continually updated with information about the newly-announced Nobel laureates and access to their research.
The whole of my remaining realizable estate shall be dealt with in the following way: the capital, invested in safe securities by my executors, shall.
item, folder title, box no., Alfred Noble Papers, Bentley Historical Library, University of Michigan Biography Alfred Noble was born in Livonia, Michigan, on August 7, . Herbert Simon was the founding father of artificial intelligence.
No other scientist better understood the future of machines and the ultimate importance of computers. Rutgers Physics News Professor Eric Gawiser has been named a Fellow of the American Physical Society.. Fellowship is a distinction bestowed for exceptional contributions to the physics enterprise, including outstanding physics research, important applications of physics, leadership in or service to physics, or significant contributions to physics education, and is reserved for the top one.
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