An introduction to the issue of obedience and conformity

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An introduction to the issue of obedience and conformity

Along with Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, Michael Bakunin and Emma Goldman, Peter Kropotkin laid the foundations for anarchism both as a theoretical framework and an active political movement. These debates marked one of the periods where anarchism was taken most seriously as a theory of organisation.

In current society individuals have become mere cogs in the hierarchic-bureaucratic apparatus. However, both in scale and structure these organizations are at odds with the much cherished principles of self-realization and individual freedom.

Whereas the individual prefers participation, liberty and self-government, the organizational system of today demands hierarchy, central control and obedience by its members. Aside from that, these hierarchic-bureaucratic organizations are not An introduction to the issue of obedience and conformity effective and efficient.

Notable absentees in the debate about these social issues are the classical political theorists, notwithstanding the fact that these thinkers have in a long tradition developed valuable theories about organizational state systems.

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Over the years I have learned that the views on organization of prominent political philosophers are often neglected in current organization and management literature, while at the same time their reflections are highly relevant to modern organization and management theory.

In earlier work I have explored a number of visions on organization as found in the history of political theory, analyzing the potential of these particular ideas in political philosophy for modern organization theory, organization sociology and psychology See for instance De Geus ; ; In this contribution, however, I have been asked to focus on the fascinating organizational reflections of one particular political theorist: In my view, Kropotkin can be interpreted as being an intelligent predecessor of bio-cybernetic organization theory, as found in the work of theorists such as Stafford Beer, and also of the organizational ideas of prominent thinkers including Henry Mintzberg and Gareth Morgan.

Kropotkin is one of the founders of anarchist social and political thought, and definitely belongs among the most inspiring authors in this field. I shall clarify the knowledge and expertise which can be found in the often ignored anarchist heritage of political theory in the area of organization and management thinking.

Peter Kropotkin became first known as a geologist and anthropologist who travelled around the Russian Empire and reported his scientific findings in articles and academic papers, but in the course of his life he developed into the most influential author of anarchist social theory.

Elaborating on the work of preceding libertarian thinkers such as Pierre-Joseph Proudhon and Michael Bakunin, he tried to provide anarchism with a rational scientific basis.

Whereas Proudhon and Bakunin had not succeeded in designing a systematic and coherent theory of anarchism, Kropotkin devoted his whole life to fulfilling this task, engaging in profound research and writing voluminous books. He endeavored to give the anarchist conception a high degree of coherence and unity, systematically making use of insights of the natural sciences.

For an excellent biography see Miller []. The core of his organizational vision can be found in Mutual aid. The book contains his most serious attempt to found anarchist theory on a scientific basis.

On the grounds of biological, anthropological, ecological and historical findings, he tried to clarify the importance of mutual aid, solidarity and cooperation in our evolution.

Kropotkin observed that among animals mutual aid and support played a prominent role and he realized that this could be crucial to the maintenance and evolution of species. He was strengthened in his opinion when he read an article by professor Karl Kessler, a well-known Russian zoologist.

In Kessler had written an article arguing that next to the law of mutual struggle, there is also a law of mutual aid in nature see also the general preface to Kropotkin []. When in Thomas Henry Huxley published an essay on The Struggle for existence and its bearing upon man, Kropotkin was provoked to react.

Kropotkin sharply understood what the consequences of these arguments would be. They were a strong weapon in the hands of the defenders of a central state and of authoritarian government.

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If warfare and oppression were accepted as the very essence of human nature, the call for a powerful Hobbesian sovereign authority which enforces peace in society, would become plausible. Kropotkin begins with an analysis of the animal world.

An introduction to the issue of obedience and conformity

After an elaborate argument he comes to the conclusion that the vast majority of animal species live in communities and for that reason have the best chances of survival. There may be severe wars between species, but within the community struggle for life is limited ibid.: The animals that have developed the practices of solidarity and mutual aid are invariably the most numerous, the most prosperous and the most open to further progress: But can this law be applied legitimately to both animals and humans?

Kropotkin then shifts his attention from the animal world to the world of primitive humanity. First, he attacks English philosopher Thomas Hobbes and criticizes the assumption that for primitive humanity a constant war of each against all was the normal state of existence.

Hobbes makes the error of imagining that primitive people used to live in small family groups. From prehistoric ages onwards, humans lived in more extended societies, in which they cooperated to provide for their basic needs.

The development of human kind is a direct result of the cooperative spirit that is inherent in human nature. Village communities constituted the next phase in the history of mankind and the development of forms of mutual aid. Generally, these were groups made up out of families who held the land in common property.10 Magazine (UK) Cover Price: $ Member Price: $ 10 Magazine is an aspirational luxury and beauty magazine for women from kaja-net.com is a magazine that provides a voice for fashion journalism as it provides an environment for the fashion industry's most creative photographers and writers to evolve, express and display their ideas.

Social influence refers to the ways in which external factors trigger change in an individual. It guides the way we form our thoughts and organize our overt behaviour and actions.

Conformity, compliance and obedience are all forms of social influence that strongly affect our everyday lives. This. - The Features of Conformity and Obedience Conformity: Debra Gray defines conformity as “A change in behaviour in response to real or imagined group pressure when there is neither direct request to comply with the group nor any reason to justify the behaviour change”.

explore the issue of non-conformity among youth. As Steers’ .

Conformity, Obedience, and Infuence in Social Psychology | Owlcation

As a former Mormon at first it was a heartbreak for me to learn of all the deception. I cried for days and still refused to believe it until I read for myself the very books you had quoted from.

Introduction Salvation is by faith in Christ, but not just any faith can save. It must be of the right content and of the right quality to be acceptable to God for salvation.

Introduction. A Total Way of Life. The first fundamental principle of Hindu Dharma is that "the Reality is one without a second." This reality is beyond description by human mind. Hence it is indicated by a single world, "Brahman".

Conformity and Obedience | Noba