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Research[ edit ] There is no credible evidence that zero tolerance reduces violence or drug abuse by students. Analysis of the suspension rate of students show that black females and other racial minorities are suspended at a greater rate.
It was found that suspensions and expulsions as a result of zero tolerance policies have not reduced school disruptions. The study's author stated that "zero tolerance approaches to school discipline are not the best way to create a safe climate for learning".
Even civilian judges consider mitigating circumstances before passing judgement or sentencing. If zero tolerance policies were applied in adult courtroom scenarios, they would be fundamentally unjust and unconstitutional due to neglecting the laws involving due process, along with cruel Hello kitty writing paper unusual punishments.
History[ edit ] The label of zero tolerance began with the Gun-Free Schools Act ofwhen Congress authorized public-school funding subject to the adoption of zero-tolerance policies.
The use of zero-tolerance policies in secular, public schools increased dramatically after the Columbine High School massacrewith principals declaring that safety concerns made them want zero tolerance for weapons.
These have led to a large number of disproportionate responses to minor, or technical transgressions, many Hello kitty writing paper which have attracted the attention of the international media.
These cases include students being suspended or expelled for such offenses as possession of ibuprofen or Midol both legal, non-prescription drugs commonly used to treat menstrual cramps and headaches with permission of the students' parents, keeping pocketknives small utility knife in cars, and carrying sharp tools outside of a woodshop classroom where they are often required materials.
Morgan, a student was expelled for having a knife in his car on school property, despite his protestations that he was unaware of the knife's presence. In the "kids for cash" scandaljudge Mark Ciavarellawho promoted a platform of zero tolerance, received kickbacks for constructing a private prison that housed juvenile offenders, and then proceeded to fill the prison by sentencing children to extended stays in juvenile detention for offenses as minimal as mocking a principal on Myspacescuffles in hallways, trespassing in a vacant building, and shoplifting DVDs from Wal-Mart.
Critics of zero-tolerance policies argue that harsh punishments for minor offenses are normalized. The documentary Kids for Cash interviews experts on adolescent behavior, who argue that the zero tolerance model has become a dominant approach to policing juvenile offenses after the Columbine shooting.
One school board member gave this reason for changes his district made to their rigid policy: He had used the knife to clean his golfing cleats.
After bringing a Cub Scouts dinner knife to school to eat his lunch, a six-year-old boy was ordered to attend an alternative school for students with behavioral problems for nine weeks.
The teacher used the knife to cut the cake, and then reported her to the authorities as having a dangerous weapon. The expulsion was overturned and led to a state law that gave districts the ability to, "on a case-by-case basis, modify the terms of the expulsion.
A second grader in Baltimore, Marylandwas suspended in March for biting a Pop-Tart into the shape of a mountain, which school officials mistook for a gun. Following widespread negative media coverage and public disapproval, the school agreed to downgrade the suspension cause to "misconduct".
A freshman at MacArthur High School in Irving, Texaswas suspended for a week in September after he put a digital alarm clock in a pencil box, and took it to his school to show a teacher.
When the device beeped while in one class, the student was suspended and detained on suspicion of creating a hoax bomb. Promotion[ edit ] Proponents of punishment- and exclusion-based philosophy of school discipline policies claim that such policies are required to create an appropriate environment for learning.
This is intended as a behavior modification strategy: This is a standard policy in rule- and law-based systems around the world on "offenses" as minor as traffic violations to major health and safety legislation for the protection of employees and the environment.
Criticism[ edit ] Critics of zero-tolerance policies in schools say they are part of a school-to-prison pipeline  that over-polices children with behavioural problems, treating their problems as criminal justice issues rather than educational and behavioural problems.
Students that may previously have been given short school suspensions before the implementation of policies are now sent to juvenile courts. Typical examples include the honor-roll student being expelled from school under a "no weapons" policy while in possession of nail clippers or for possessing "drugs" like cough drops and dental mouthwash or "weapons" like rubber bands.
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